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scutum, a shield, Roman shield, infantry shield, buckler
scūtum, ī, n.: an oblong shield carried by the Roman legionary; a shield in general, 1.101, et al. (σκύτος, hide)
scūtum, i, n. (masc.
collat. form scū-tus, Turp. ap. Non. 226, 13
- I An oblong shield, made of boards fastened together, and covered with leather, a buckler (whereas clipeus denotes a round shield, target of metal; cf. Veg. Mil. 2, 18): scutum pro clipeo, Liv. 1, 43: pedestre, of the infantry, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 14; 9, 13, 16; Liv. 6, 8; 7, 10: equestria, of the cavalry, id. 43, 6: ad galeas induendas scutisque tegimenta detrahenda tempus defuit, Caes. B. G. 2, 21: scutis ex cortice factis aut viminibus intextis, id. ib. 2, 33: sublato scuto, id. B. C. 2, 35: abjecto scuto fugere, Cic. Tusc. 2, 23, 54: ut non modo non abjecto, sed ne rejecto quidem scuto fugere videar, id. de Or. 2, 72, 294: scutum reliquisse praecipuum flagitium, Tac. G. 6: hastas et scuta reclinant, Verg. A. 12, 130: fulgentia, id. ib. 8, 93: longa, id. ib. 8, 539; Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 73; Liv. 7, 26; 38, 17: erectum altius, Amm. 24, 4, 4.—
- B Transf., heavyarmed soldiers, men bearing shields (late Lat.): oppidum, ordine circumdatum trino scutorum, oppugnabat, Amm. 24, 4, 10: Agilo, scutorum densitate contectus, id. 21, 12, 18 al.—
- II Trop., a shield, i. e. a defence, protection, sheiter, safeguard (rare): sed ne quod tamen scutum dare in judicio viderentur eis, quos, etc., Cic. Tull. 18, 43: scuto vobis magis quam gladio opus est, Liv. 3, 53 fin. (for which, just before: praesidia libertatis non licentiae ad impugnandos alios): Fabius novam de Hannibale victoriam commentus est, non pugnare. Hinc illud ex populo, ut Imperii scutum vocaretur, Flor. 2, 6, 27; cf.: Deus, scutum meum, Vulg. 2 Reg. 22, 3: scutum fidei, id. Eph. 6, 16.
scūtum, (9) ī, n. (σκῦτος), bouclier [ovale et convexe, puis long et creux, c. une tuile faîtière] : Cæs. G. 2, 21, 5 ; 2, 33, etc.; Liv. 1, 43, 4 || [fig.] = défense : Cic. Tull. 43 ; Liv. 3, 53, 9.
SCUTUM(θυρεός), the Roman shield worn by the heavy-armed infantry after 340 B.C.,instead of being round like the Greek CLIPEUSwas adapted to the form of the human body, by being made either oval or of the shape of a door (θύρα), which it also resembled in being made of wood or wicker-work, and from which consequently its Greek name was derived. Two of its forms are shown in the woodcut at p. 80. That which is here exhibited is also of frequent occurrence, and is given on the same authority: in this case the shield is curved so as in part to encircle the body. The terms clipeusand scutumare often confounded; but that they properly denoted different kinds of shields is manifest from the passages of several ancient writers (Liv. 8.8; Plut. Rom. 21). In like manner Plutarch distinguishes the Roman θυρεὸςfrom the Greek ἀσπὶςin his life of T. Flaminius (p. 688, ed. Steph.). In Eph.6.16 St. Paul uses the term θυρεὸςrather than (ἀσπὶςor σάκος,because he is describing the equipment of a Roman soldier. These Roman shields are called scuta longa(Verg. A. 8.662; Ovid, ZYYOv. Fast. 6.392). Polybius ZYZ(Plb. 6.23) says their dimensions were 4 feet by 2 1/2 , or slightly more. The shield was held on the left arm by means of a handle, and covered the left shoulder.
(θυρεός). The large oblong shield generally adopted by the Roman infantry instead of the round buckler (clipeus), at the period when the military ceased to serve without pay. It was about four feet long by two and a half wide; formed out of boards, like a door (whence the Greek terms θύρα and θυρεός), firmly joined together and covered over with coarse cloth, under an outer coating of raw-hide, attached and strengthened round Roman Soldiers with Shields. (Bartoli.) the edges by a metal rim. The men of each legion had their shields painted of a different colour and charged with distinctive symbols (Livy, i. 43; viii. 8; Pliny , Pliny H. N.xvi. 77; Aen viii. 662; Veg. Mil.ii. 18; Polyb. ii. 30, 3; vi. 23, 2). See Arma; Clipeus.