- Ia tortoise, Hhymn., Hdt.; prov. of insensibility, ἰὼ χελῶναι μακάριαι τοῦ δέρματος oh ye tortoises, happy in your thick skins! Ar.
- IIlike Roman testudo, a pent-house formed of shields overlapping each other like the scales on a tortoiseʼs back, used by storming parties in approaching a cityʼs walls: then, generally, a pent-house for protecting besiegers, Xen.