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Trallēs, (15) ĭum, f. (Trallis, Plin. 5, 108 ; 35, 161 ), Tralles (ville de Lydie) : Cic. Fl. 57 ; 71 ; Agr. 2, 39 ; Cæs. C. 3, 105, 6 ; Liv. 37, 45 ; peuple dʼIllyrie : Liv. 27, 32 et 31, 35 || Trallĭānus, a, um, de Tralles : Cic. Or. 234 || -ĭānī, ōrum, m. , habitants de Tralles : Cic. Fl. 52.
Trallīs, ium f stad in het dal v.d. Meander in
Carië, sinds Augustus Caesarea genaamd, nu Aydın; — adj.
TRALLESor TRALLIS(Τράλλεις, Τράλλις: Eth.Τραλλιανός), a large and flourishing city of Caria, on the southern slope of mount Messogis, a little to the north of the Scamander, a small tributary of which, the Eudon, flowed close by the city, while another passed right through it. Its acropolis was situated on a lofty eminence in the north of the city. Tralles was said to have been founded by Argives in conjunction with a body of Thracians, whence its name Tralles was believed to be derived (Strab. xiv. pp. 648, 649; Hesych, s. v.;Diod. Sic. 17.65; Plut. Ages. 16), for it is said to have previously been called Anthea, Evanthea, Erymna, Charax, Seleucia, and Antiochia (Steph. B. s. vv.Τράλλις, Χάραξ;Etym. M.p. 389; Plin. Nat. 5.29). Others, however, state that it was a Pelasgian colony, and originally bore the name of Larissa (Agath. 2.17; Schol. ad Hom. Il.10.429). It was situated in a most fertile district, at a point where highroads met from the south, east, and west; so that it must have been a place of considerable commerce. (Cic. ad Att.5.1. 4, ad Fans.3.5, ad Quint. Frat.1.1; Strab. 14. p. 663.) The inhabitants of Tralles were celebrated for their great wealth, and were generally appointed asiarchs, that is, presidents of the games celebrated in the district. But the country in which Tralles was situated was much subject to earthquakes; in the reign of Augustus many of its public buildings were greatly damaged by a violent shock; and the emperor gave the inhabitants a handsome sum of money to repair the losses they had sustained. (Strab. 12. p. 579.) Out of gratitude, the Trallians petitioned to be permitted to erect a temple in honour of Tiberius, but without effect. (Tac. Ann. 4.55.) According to Pliny ZYZ(Plin. Nat. 35.49), king Attalus had a palace at Tralles. A statue of Caesar was set up in the temple of Victoria at Tralles; and during the presence of Caesar in Asia a miracle is said to have happened in the temple, respecting which see Caes. Bell. Civ.3.105; Plut. Caes. 47; and Val. Max.. The city is very often mentioned by ancient writers (Xen. Anab. 1.4. 8, Hist. Gr.3.2.19; Plb. 22.27; Liv. 37.45, 38.39-Z2; Diod. 14.36, 19.75-Z2; Juven. 3.70; Ptol. 5.2.19; Hierocl. p. 659). During the middle ages the city fell into decay, but was repaired by Andronicus Palaeologus (G. Pachymer, p. 320). Extensive ruins of the place still exist above the modern Ghiuzel Hissar,in a position perfectly agreeing with the description of Strabo. (See Arundell, Seven Churches,pp. 58, 65, 293; Leake, Asia Minor,pp. 243, 246; Fellows, Asia Minor,p. 276, Lycia,p. 16; Hamilton, Researches,1. p. 533.) As to the coins of Tralles, which are very numerous, see Sestini, p. 89. COIN OF TRALLES.
TRALLESor TRALLIS(Τράλλης), a town in Phrygia, on the west of Apamea, and 15 miles east of Hierapolis, not far from the banks of the Maeander (Hierocl. p. 667; Conc. Const.2. p. 243; Cone. Nicaen.2. p. 51; Tab. Peut.). The ruins seen by Arundell (Seven Churches,p. 231) near the village of Kuslarare probably those of Tralles.
or Trallis (αἱ Τραλλεῖς, ἡ Τράλλις). A flourishing commercial city of Lydia, in Asia Minor. It stood on a plateau at the southern foot of Mount Messogis (with a citadel on a higher point), on the banks of the little river Eudon, a northern tributary of the Maeander, from which the city was distant eighty stadia (eight geographical miles). It was said to have been founded by Argives and Thracian settlers on the site of an older town called Anthea ( Strab. p. 648; Diod.xvii. 65). Under the Seleucidae it bore the names of Seleucia and Antiochia.
TRALLES(Aydin formerly Güzelhisar) Turkey.
City in Caria (or Ionia or Lydia), founded according to tradition by a mixed company of Argives and barbarian Tralleis from Thrace (Strab. 649). In 400 B.C. the Spartan Thibron attempted to take it from the Persians, but was defeated by the strength of the place (Diod. 14.36). Taken by force by Antigonos in 313 (Diod. 19.75), the city later came under the Seleucids and took the name Seleuceia; this is confirmed by the coins, but Pliny's statement (HN5.108) that it was also called Antiocheia is unsupported and generally regarded as a mistake. Other names which Tralles is alleged to have borne in early times are Euantheia (Plin. loc.cit.), Polyantheia, Erymna, and Charax (Steph. Byz.). After Magnesia Tralles passed to Eumenes and remained Pergamene until 133 B.C., even supporting Aristonikos against the Romans. At the time of the first Mithridatic war the city was under the tyranny of the sons of Kratippos (Strab. loc.cir.), who were apparently responsible for the slaughter of the Roman residents. In 26 B.C. Tralles suffered from a severe earthquake, and in gratitude for Augustus' help in restoration took the name of Caesareia; by the end of the 1st c., however, this name had fallen into disuse. Despite the great wealth of the citizens as recorded by Strabo, Tralles was refused the privilege of building a temple to Tiberius on the ground that she lacked sufficient resources. The abundant Imperial coinage continues down to the time of Gallienus. Later Tralles, as a bishopric, ranked second after Hypaipa under the metropolitan of Ephesos.
The site is accurately described by Strabo (648) as on a plateau, well defended all round, with a steep acropolis. The hill is now occupied by the army, and visitors require a military escort. Little is left of the remains visible in the 19th and early 20th c., a theater, stadium, agora, and gymnasium, but the finds are in the Istanbul museum, and include a fine marble statue of a young athlete of the time of Augustus.
All that is now standing is a part of the gymnasium, comprising three high arches of mixed masonry of stone and brick, with much mortar; this has been dated to the 3d c. A.D. It is called Üç Göz and is conspicuous from the road and railway, looking from a distance very like a triumphal arch. The theater faced S at the foot of the acropolis, which rises from the N end of the plateau. It was interesting chiefly because it had a T-shaped underground passage from the stage building to the middle of the orchestra, but this has been obliterated. All that now survives is an arched entrance at the level of the upper diazoma and a fragment of the retaining wall of the cavea.
K. Humann & W. Dörpfeld, AthMitt18 (1893) 395ff; G. E. Bean, Turkey beyond the Maeander(1971) 208-11.
G. E. BEAN