υἱός, ὁ (written ϝhιός in Ἀρχ. Ἐφ. 1931.103
(Nemea, vi B. C.)), declined regul. υἱοῦ, υἱῷ, υἱόν, but in Att. Inscrr. only after 350
B.C. (exc. υἱός IG12.529,530, 598, 625; ὑός ib. 585, 828; ὑόνib.70.8), and then always so: —in earlier Att. and other Inscrr. inflected as a ῠ-stem (like πῆχυς), nom. υἱύς (written hυιhυς
) Klein Vasen mit Meister-signaturen
72 (Brit.Mus.Cat.701) (ὑύς IG12.571, 670, 686; contr. ὕς ib.663); gen. υἱέος (ὑέος IG22.4883); dat. υἱεῖ: dual υἱεῖ Lys.19.46
, written hυιε in IG12.775 (corrupted to υἱέε in Pl.Ap.20a
cod. B), υἱέοιν: pl. υἱεῖς (ὑεῖς IG12.115.14, al.), υἱέων, υἱέσι (S.Ant.571
, Ar. Nu.1001
(anap.)), ὑέ[σιν] (IG12.54.14), υἱεῖς (ὑεῖς IG22.1.73): but gen. υἱέως, and acc. υἱέα, υἱέας, which are formed as though from nom. *υἱεύς, are rejected by Phryn.48,49, Thom.Mag.p.367 R., as not Att., though the two latter forms are used by later writers (as υἱέα Euph. 5
, ὑέα IG42(1).244.4 (Epid., ii B. C.), but υἱέως is f. l. in Th.1.13
, etc.): dat. pl. υἱεῦσιν is mentioned as a form that would be regular by Eust.1348.27
:—Homer uses nom. υἱός (very freq.); gen. υἱοῦ only in Od.22.238
, elsewh. υἱέος; dat. υἱέϊ or υἱεῖ; acc. υἱέα Il.13.350
(cf. IGRom.4.360.29 (Pergam., hex.)), elsewh. υἱόν (very freq.): pl., nom. υἱέες Il.5.10
, al., or υἱεῖς Od.15.248
; gen. υἱῶν Il.21.587
; dat. υἱοῖσι (ν) only Od.19.418
, υἱάσι (ν) Il.5.463
, al. (never υἱέσι); acc. υἱέας ib.149
, al.:— he also uses the shorter forms, gen. υἷος, υἷι, υἷα, dual υἷε (distd. from the voc. sg. υἱέ by the accent), pl. υἷες, υἷας; but these were confined to Ep.: their accentuation (in which codd. agree with Hdn.Gr.1.409
) may preserve a trace of their Aeolic origin (v. infr.). The declension υἱῆος, υἱῆϊ, υἱῆα, υἱῆες, υἱήεσσι, υἱῆας (like βασιλῆος, etc., as though from υἱεύς), belongs solely to later Ep. poets, as A.R.2.1093
, Nic.Fr.110, AP9.23 (Antip.), etc. Dialect Inscrr. have the foll. archaic forms, nom. υἱύς IG5 (1).720 (Lacon.), Leg.Gort.12.17 (υιυις lapis); acc. υἱύν Inscr.Olymp.30, Leg.Gort.10.15; gen. υἱέος ib.6.3, Schwyzer 105 (Methana, vi B. C.); but υἱοῦ IG9(1).867 (Corc., vii B. C.); nom. pl. υἱέες Leg.Gort.7.25; acc. pl. υἱύνς ib. 4.40, IG12.407 (Cret. or Argive); dat. pl. υἱάσι Leg.Gort.4.37 (as in Hom., influenced by θυγατράσι, πατράσι, which have ρα = ṛ,
cf. Skt. pitṛṣu
); ὑέεσσι IG14.10 (Syrac.); υἷος in SIG55 (Thessaly, v B. C.) is perh. the Aeol. gen. (ὑός is nom. rather than gen. in IG12.828); acc. ὗα Schwyzer 625 (Mytil., ii/i B. C.); a nom. ὑϊς (scanned - ^) IG12.472 (Boeotia, vi B. C.), cf. Simon.249
(v. infr.); nom. pl. ὗες IG22.3632.24 (hex., Eleusis, ii A. D.). The initial syll. is both υἱ-and ὑ- in Att. Inscrr. down to 400 B.C. (e. g. ὑεῖς IG12.115.14, ὑέ[σιν] ib.54.14, ὑόν v. supr.), afterwards ὑ-, but υἱός reappears under the Empire; in Plato cod. A usually has ὑιος, which is found also in T, cod. B always has υἱός, editors restore ὑός; acc. υἱόν is recommended by Phryn. l. c.; in Inscrr. of Pergamon, Magnesia, and Delphi, and in non-literary Papyri, ὑός is at all times less common than υἱός:—ὁ υεἱός CIG (add.) 3857p; dat. υεἱῷ ib.3846z82 (both Phrygia), cf. BCH11.471:—
- Ason, Il.6.366, etc.; υἱὸν ποιεῖσθαί τινα to adopt as a son, Aeschin.2.28; υἱεῖς ἄνδρες grown-up sons, D. 25.88: metaph., Κόρον Ὕβριος υἱόν Orac. ap. Hdt.8.77: rarely of animals, Ev.Matt.21.5.
- 2 periphr., υἷες Ἀχαιῶν, for Ἀχαιοί, Il. 1.162, al.; cf. παῖς I.3.
- 3 generally, child, and so υἱ. ἄρρην male child, Apoc.12.5, PSI9.1039.36 (iii A. D.).
- 4 freq. in LXX in periphrases (Hebraisms with various meanings), υἱὸς ἐτῶν ἑκατόν 100 years old, Ge. 11.10, al.; υἱοὶ ἀδικίας 2 Ki.7.10; υἱοὶ θανατώσεως 1 Ki. 26.16; υἱοὶ τῶν συμμίζεων hostages, 4 Ki.14.14; so υἱὸς εἰρήνης Ev.Luc.10.6.
- 5 in some dialects, including the Ion. Prose of Hdt., υἱός is replaced by παῖς: υἱός is rare in Trag., A.Th.609, Fr. 320, E.Or.1689 (anap.), al., and 7 times in S.: Hom. has both words in this sense.
- 6 as a general term of affection, PGiss.68.2 (ii A. D.), POxy.1219.2 (iii A. D.); υἱέ, an authorʼs address to the reader, LXX Pr.1.8, al.
- 7 δάμου υἱός, υἱὸς πόλεως, Ἑλλάδος, as titles of honour, SIG804.10 (Cos, i A. D.), 813A,B (Delph., i A. D.), 854 (Eleusis, i A. D.).
- 8 υἱοὶ ἀνθρώπων sons of men, periphr. for men (cf. supr. 2,4), LXXPs.89(90).3; οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν ἀ. ib.Ge.11.5, Ev.Marc.3.28; υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου man, LXXEz.2.1,3, al.; of the Messiah, ib.Da.7.13, Apoc.14.14; used by Jesus of himself, Ev.Matt.8.20, al. (by Stephen recalling the words of Jesus, Act.Ap.7.56).
- 9 υἱοὶ Θεοῦ sons of God, implying inheritors of the nature of God (cf. supr. 4), Ev.Matt.5.9, cf. 45, Ev.Luc.6.35; implying participants in the glory of God, ib.20.36.
- b of Jesus, τὸ γεννώμενον κληθήσεται υἱὸς Θεοῦ ib. 1.35; ὁ Χριστός, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Ev.Matt.26.63, cf.Ev.Jo.1.34.
- c Θεοῦ υἱός, = Lat. Divi (sc. Caesaris) filius, patronymic of Augustus, BGU543.3 (27 B.C.), PTeb.382.21 (i B. C.), IG12(3).174.2 (Epist. ad Cnidios, 5 A.D.). [Hom.sts. has the first syll. short in nom., voc. and acc. sg., οὐδὲ Δρύαντος υἱός Il.6.130; Ἀμφιτρύωνος υἱός Od.11.270; Ποδῆς υἱὸς Ἠετίωνος Il.17.575, cf. 590; Ἀνθεμίωνος υἱόν 4.473; Σελάγου υἱόν 5.612; Ἕκτορ, υἱὲ Πριάμοιο 7.47; and Πηλῆος υἱός, Μηκιστῆος υἱός seem to be the better readings in 1.489, 2.566: in these places some other form ought perh. to be restored, but none of the known forms has a short ῠ: ὑός has ῡ in IG12.585 (vi B. C.), 828 (v B. C.), 2.2338, 22.4319 (both iv B. C.); Simon.l.c. seems to have used a monosyll. nom. υἷς, and Hdn.Gr. may have read it as ὕις (⏑⏑), but this is uncertain, as in Sch.Il.5.266 he seems to say that ὕις (υἷις cod.) does not occur.] (Prob. from *sū-yú-s, cf. Skt. sūte ‘procreate’, Tocharian (A-dial.) se, (B-dial.) soyä ‘sonʼ; different suffix in *sū-nu-s, Skt. sūnūs, etc., and in *sǔ-nu-s, OE. sunu, etc. (all = son); *sūyú- perh. became *sǔwyú-, then *suiwú-; υἱός and υἱόν perh. by dissimilation from υἱύς υἱύν, since the o-stem forms appear first where υ-υ would otherwise be repeated; ὗϊς (ὑΐς) may be another dissimilation; the precise origin of υἷος υἷι υἷες etc. is uncertain.)