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οὖν, οὖν, then, therefore
οὖν, Ion. and Dor. ὦν (the latter in Pi.P.3.82
, al., but οὖν in Hom. (v. infr.), B.18.29
, al.), Adv.
- Acertainly, in fact, confirming something, freq. in contrast with something which is not confirmed, in Hom. only in combination with γε (v. γοῦν), γάρ, οὔτε or μήτε, ὡς, ἐπεί, μέν, etc.:
- 1 really, φημὶ γὰρ οὖν κατανεῦσαι . . Κρονίωνα for I declare that Zeus did really promise . ., Il.2.350, cf. Pl.Prt.309b; τόφρα γὰρ οὖν ἑπόμεσθα . ., ὄφρʼ for we followed them up to the very point, where . ., Il.11.754, cf. 15.232, Od.2.123; εἰ δʼ οὖν τις ἀκτὶς ἡλίου νιν ἱστορεῖ . . ζῶντα A.Ag.676, cf. 1042; ἐλέχθησαν λόγοι ἄπιστοι μὲν ἐνίοισι Ἑλλήνων, ἐλέχθησαν δʼ ὦν but they really were spoken, Hdt.3.80, cf. 4.5, 6.82; Θηβαῖοι μὲν ταῦτα λέγουσι . ., Πλαταιῆς δʼ οὐχ ὁμολογοῦσι . ., ἐκ δʼ οὖν τῆς γῆς ἀνεχώρησαν at all events they did return, Th.2.5, cf. 1.63, Pl.Prt.315e; σωτηρίαν λεπτὴν μὲν . ., μόνην δʼ οὖν Id.Lg.699b; so δʼ οὖν after a parenthesis; εἰ δή τις ὑμῶν οὕτως ἔχει,—οὐκ ἀξιῶ μὲν γὰρ ἔγωγε,—εἰ δʼ οὖν but if he is so, Id.Ap.34d, cf. Hdt.6.76, Th.1.3; so ἀλλʼ οὖν . . γε but at all events, S.Ant.84, Ph.1305; ἔμπης οὖν ἐπιμεῖναι ἐς αὔριον to stay nevertheless at least till to-morrow, Od.11.351; οὖν concessive, I grant you, τάχʼ οὖν τις ἄκων ἔσχε S.Ph.305: in apodosi after εἰ or ἐάν, εἰ καὶ σμικρά, ἀλλʼ ὦν ἴση γε ἡ χάρις . . Hdt.3.140, cf.9.48, E.Ph.498, Pl.Phd.91b, etc.: after ἐπεί and ὡς, ἀλλʼ ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ πρῶτον ἀνέκραγον but now that I have (emphat.) once spoken up, Od.14.467, cf. 17.226, Il.18.333; Τληπόλεμος δʼ, ἐπεὶ οὖν τράφʼ ἐνὶ μεγάρῳ εὐπήκτῳ, αὐτίκα . . κατέκτα when once, i.e. as soon as, he had grown up, 2.661, cf. 15.363, 16.394, al.; νεβροί, αἵ τʼ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἔκαμον . . ἑστᾶσʼ which, as soon as they are tired, stand still, 4.244; to indicate that something foreshadowed has actually occurred, ἀγορήνδε καλέσσατο λαὸν Ἀχιλλεύς . ., οἱ δʼ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἤγερθεν 1.57, cf. 3.340, al.: sts. οὖν after ἐπεί or ὡς has either no force or approaches signf. II or III, οἱ δʼ ἐπεὶ οὖν παύσαντο πόνου Od.16.478, cf. 19.213, 251, al.; τὸν δʼ ὡς οὖν ἐνόησε Il.3.21, al.; οὔτʼ οὖν . ., οὔτε . . or οὔτε . ., οὔτʼ οὖν . . both = neither . . nor, but preferred according as the first or second clause is to be marked by emphasis, cf. 17.20, Od.2.200, Hdt.9.26, with Od. 11.198sq., S.OT90, 271, etc.; so εἰ . ., εἴτʼ οὖν . . if . ., or if . ., E.Alc. 140; εἴτʼ οὖν, εἴτε μὴ γενήσεται whether it shall be so, or no, Id.Heracl.149, cf. A.Ag.491, S.El.560; ξεῖνος αἴτʼ ὦν ἀστός, i.e. αἴτε ξ. αἴτʼ ὦν ἀ., Pi.P.4.78; and doubled, εἴτʼ οὖν ἀληθὲς εἴτʼ οὖν ψεῦδος Pl. Ap.34e, cf. A.Ch.683: so also in parenth. Relat. clauses, ἢ σῖγʼ, ἀτίμως, ὥσπερ οὖν ἀπώλετο πατήρ even as, just as, ib.96, cf. 888, E.Hipp. 1307 (v.l.); εἰ δʼ ἔστιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἔστι, θεός if he is, as he in fact is, a god, Pl.Phdr.242e; οὗτος μὲν οἴεταί τι εἰδέναι οὐκ εἰδώς, ἐγὼ δέ, ὥσπερ οὖν οὐκ οἶδα, οὐδὲ οἴομαι Id.Ap.21d: for γὰρ οὖν, v. γάρ A. II.5; for μὲν οὖν, v. μέν B. II.2.
- 2 added to indef. Prons. and Advbs., like Lat. cunque, ὅστις whoever, ὁστισοῦν whosoever; ὅπως how, ὁπωσοῦν howsoever; ἄλλος ὁστισοῦν another, be he who he may; so ὁποιοσοῦν, ὁποιοστισοῦν, ὁποσοσοῦν, ὁπωσδηποτοῦν, ὁπητιοῦν, ὁποθενοῦν, etc., v. sub vocc.
- II to continue a narrative, so, then, καὶ τὰ μὲν οὖν . . θῆκαν Od.13.122; ὅτʼ οὖν since, then, . ., S.Ant.170, El.38, 1318; ζεῖ οὖν ἐν τούτῳ . . Pl.Phdr.251c, cf. Prt.322b; εὐθὺς οὖν ὁ Κῦρος εἶπεν X.Cyr.4.1.22: in Hdt. and Att., μὲν οὖν (q.v.) is very common in this sense; so δʼ οὖν A.Ag.34, S.Aj.114; οὖν is also used alone merely to resume after a parenth. or long protasis, well, as I was saying, ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, χρήσαντος τοῦ θεοῦ . ., ὑμεας γὰρ πυνθάνομαι προεστάναι . .,—ὑμέας ὦν . . προσκαλέομαι . . Hdt.1.69, cf. 4.75, Th.2.16, Pl.Ap.29d, Smp.201d, etc.: Hdt. so uses ὦν after a short protasis, 1.144, etc.
- 2 ὦν is freq. inserted by Hdt. (sts. without any discernible meaning) between the Prep. and its Verb (but only, it seems, in narrative with the aor., which is always the aor. of habitual action exc. in 2.172), ἐπεὰν δὲ ταῦτα ποιήσωσι, ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδωκαν ib.87; καὶ ἔπειτα ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδωκαν ib.88: after a part., οἱ δὲ φέροντες ἐς τὴν ἀγορήν, ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδοντο ib.39; κατευξάμενοι, κοιλίην μὲν κείνην πᾶσαν ἐξ ὦν εἶλον ib.40; ἤν τις ψαύσῃ . ., αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπʼ ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτόν ib.47; τοῦτον κατʼ ὦν κόψας ib.172; so in Hp., διʼ οὖν ἐφθάρησαν Morb.1.14 (v.l.), al.; also ἐπʼ ὦν ἐπίομες οἶνον Epich.124.3: this tmesis is rare in Att., ὥστε γε καὐτόν σε κατʼ οὖν ἔβαλεν Ar.Ra.1047; but occurs in later writers, Dorieus ap. Phylarch.3 J., AP12.226 (Strat.).
- III in inferences, then, therefore, not in Hom., rare in A., and usu. in questions (v. infr.); in a statement, Eu.219; very common from Hdt. downwds.; so καὶ σὺ οὖν you too therefore, X.Cyr. 4.1.20; καὶ γὰρ οὖν Id.An.1.9.8; cf. οὐ γὰρ οὖν, τοιγαροῦν: strengthd., δὴ οὖν Pl.Smp.191c, etc.; οὖν δή Id.R.340e: in questions, τίς οὖν ὁ λύσων σʼ ἐστίν ; A.Pr.771, cf. S.Tr.1191, Ar.Pl.906, 909, etc.; ἆρʼ οὖν δή ; Pl.Tht.146a; τί οὖν δή ; S.Aj.873 (lyr.), Pl.Phd.57a.
οὖν : inferential or resumptive particle, now, then, in Homer regularly found in connection with some other particle, γὰρ οὖν, ἐπεὶ οὖν, ὡς οὖν, μὲν οὖν, and as in the 1st or 2d of a pair of correlative clauses, οὔτʼ οὖν.. οὔτε,Od. 1.414; εἴ γ οὖν ἕτερός γε φύγῃσιν, if ‘for that matter,’ etc., Il. 5.258. The various shades of meaning assumed by οὖνmust be learned from the context of the passages in which it occurs.