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securis, an axe, hatchet, cleaver
secūris, is, f.: an ax, 2.224, et al. (secō)
sĕcūris, is (acc. securim, Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 17
; id. Men. 5, 2, 105
; Cic. Mur. 24, 48
; id. Planc. 29, 70
; Verg. A. 2, 224
; 11, 656
; Ov. M. 8, 397
; Liv. 1, 40, 7
; 3, 36, 4
; Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 201
; cf. Gell. 13, 21, 6
: securem, Liv. 3, 36, 4
; 8, 7, 20
; 9, 16, 17
; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, § 123
; Varr. ap. Non. p. 79
; Val. Max. 1, 3
, ext. 3; 3, 2, ext. 1; Tert. adv. Marc. 1, 29
; Lact. Mort. Pers. 31, 2
; Amm. 30, 8, 5
; cf. Prisc. 758
; abl. securi, Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 25
; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 3, § 7
; 2, 1, 5, § 12
; 2, 4, 64, § 144
; 2, 5, 50, § 133; Verg. A. 6, 824
; 7, 510
; Cat. 17, 19
; Ov. H. 16, 105
; Liv. 2, 5, 8
et saep.: secure, App. M. 8, p. 216, 1
; Tert. Pud. 16
), f. seco, an axe
with a broad edge (cf. bipennis).
- I In gen., as a domestic utensil, Cato, R. R. 10, 3; Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 17; id. Bacch. 5, 1, 31: rustica, Cat. 19, 3 al.—For felling trees, Cat. 17, 19; Verg. A. 6, 180; Ov. F. 4, 649; id. M. 9, 374; Hor. S. 1, 7, 27; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 188.—For hewing stones in the quarries, Stat. S. 2, 2, 87. —For fighting, a battle-axe, Verg. A. 11, 656; 11, 696; 12, 306; 7, 184; 7, 627; Hor. C. 4, 4, 20 al.: anceps, a two-edged axe, Ov. M. 8, 397 (just before, bipennifer).—For slaying animals for sacrifice, Hor. C. 3, 23, 12; Verg. A. 2, 224; Ov. Tr. 4, 2, 5; id. M. 12, 249.—As the cutting edge of a vine-dresser's bill, Col. 4, 25, 4 et saep.—
- II In partic.
- A Lit., an executioner's axe, for beheading criminals
(borne by the lictors in the fasces; v. fascis): missi lictores ad sumendum supplicium nudatos virgis caedunt securique feriunt, i. e. behead them, Liv. 2. 5; so, securi ferire, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 30, § 75; Hirt. B. G. 8, 38 fin.: percutere, Cic. Pis. 34, 84; Sen. Ira, 2, 5, 5; Flor. 1, 9, 5: strictae in principum colla secures, id. 2, 5, 4: necare, Liv. 10, 9: securibus cervices subicere, Cic. Pis. 34, 83 (cf. infra, B.); id. Verr. 2, 5, 9, § 22: Publicola statim secures de fascibus demi jussit, id. Rep. 2, 31, 55; cf. Lucr. 3, 996; 5, 1234: nec sumit aut ponit secures Arbitrio popularis aurae, Hor. C. 3, 2, 20: saevumque securi Aspice Torquatum (as having caused his own son to be executed), Verg. A. 6, 824.—Comically, in a double sense, acc. to I.: te, cum securi, caudicali praeficio provinciae, Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 25: securis Tenedia, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 11, 2; Front. ad M. Caes. 1, 9 init.; v. Tenedos.—
- B Trop.
- 1 A blow, death-blow, etc.: graviorem rei publicae infligere securim, to give a death-blow, Cic. Planc. 29, 70; cf.: quam te securim putas injecisse petitioni tuae, cum? etc. (just before: plaga est injecta petitioni tuae), id. Mur. 24, 48.—
- 2 With reference to the axe in the fasces, authority, dominion, sovereignty.
- α Usu. in plur.: Gallia securibus subjecta, perpetuā premitur servitute, i. e. to Roman supremacy, * Caes. B. G. 7, 77 fin.; cf.: vacui a securibus et tributis, Tac. A. 12, 34: consulis inperium hic primus saevasque secures Accipiet, Verg. A. 6, 819: Medus Albanas timet secures, i. e. the Roman authority or dominion, Hor. C. S. 54: ostendam multa securibus recidenda, Sen. Ep. 88, 38.—
- β In sing. (poet.): Germania colla Romanae praebens animosa securi, Ov. Tr. 4, 2, 45.
sĕcūris, (9) is, f. (seco),
hache, cognée : Cato Agr. 10, 3 ; Virg. En. 6, 180 ; 2, 224 ; 11, 656 ; securi ferire Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 75,
frapper de la hache, décapiter, cf. Verr. 2, 5, 113 ; 156 ; securi percussus Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 74,
décapité ; eum securi percussisti Cic. Pis. 84,
tu lui fis trancher la tête ; securibus cervices subicere Cic. Pis. 83,
mettre son cou sous la hache ; secures de fascibus demere Cic. Rep. 2, 55,
retirer les haches des faisceaux ; sævus securi Torquatus Virg. En. 6, 824,
Torquatus à la hache cruelle [qui fit décapiter son fils] ; securis Tenedia Cic. Q. 2, 11, 2,
la hache ténédienne [le roi Ténès, dans lʼîle de Ténédos, avait établi que tout adultère serait décapité et son fils lui-même subit le châtiment] ¶ 2
coup de hache : graviorem rei publicæ securim infligere Cic. Planc. 70,
asséner un coup de hache plus violent à lʼÉtat, cf. injicere Cic. Mur. 48 ; b)
les haches des faisceaux [symbole de lʼautorité, dʼoù] puissance, domination : Gallia securibus subjecta Cæs. G. 7, 77, 16,
la Gaule soumise aux haches romaines, à la puissance romaine, cf. Hor. Sæc. 54 ; Tac. Ann. 12, 34 ; sumere aut ponere secures Hor. O. 3, 2, 19,
prendre ou déposer les faisceaux = les magistratures || au sing., Ov. Tr. 4, 2, 45 ; c)
construction [de navires] avec la hache : XL die a securi Plin. 16, 192,
40 jours après la sortie du chantier.
➳ acc. ordin. securim, mais securem Varro Men. 389 ; Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 123 ; Liv. 3, 36, 4 ; 8, 7, 20 ; 9, 16, 17 || abl. securi, mais secure Apul. M. 8, 30.
secūris is, acc.im or em, abl.ī, f
- 2 SAC-, an axe, hatchet, cleaver: icta securibus ilex, V.: fertur quo rara securis, i. e. in the wild forest, H.: securi Dextras obarmare, H.: Anceps, two-edged, O.: Victima pontificum securīs Cervice tinget, H.
- —An executioner's axe(borne by the lictors in the fasces): nudatos securi feriunt, i. e. behead, L.: quos securi percussit, beheaded: Virtus . . . Nec sumit aut ponit securīs Arbitrio popularis aurae, i. e. its honors and power, H.
- —Fig., a blow, death-blow: graviorem rei p. infligere securim.
- —Authority, dominion, sovereignty: Germania Colla Romanae praebens securi, O.
- —Usu. plur: Gallia securibus subiecta, i. e. to Roman supremacy, Cs.: saevas securīs accipere, V.: Medus Albanas timet securīs, i. e. Roman supremacy, H.
SECU´RIS(πέλεκυς, ἀξίνη), an axe. Under this head are included (1) the workman's axe, (2) the battle-axe, (3) sacrificial axe, (4) the axe of the lictors, equivalent to the headsman's axe.
1. The workman's axe, when used for felling trees, is spoken of in general terms as πέλεκυς(Il.23.114; Xen. Cyrop. 6.2, 36-Z1, &c.) and securis(Verg. A. 6.180; Plin. Nat. 16.192, &c.); but of these woodcutters' axes there were two patterns, the single-headed and the double-headed. Of these the former (when the distinction was marked) was called πέλεκυς ἑτερόστομος(Poll. 1.137) or ἡμιπέλεκκον(Il.23.851), and is perhaps distinguished as the securis simplex(Pallad. 1.43); the double-headed axe was called πέλεκυς ἀμφίστομοςor δίστομος(Poll. l. c.;Eur. fr.534) or ἀξίνη,which is strictly used only of the double axe (Hesych.): in Latin it is the bipennis(Hor. Od.4.4, 57; Isid. Orig.19.19). [Blümner, Technol.2.202.]
The carpenters' or shipwrights' axes are distinguished in Greek as the heavy πέλεκυςfor rough-hewing the wood, and the small πέλεκυςfor 7.184; 11.696; 12.306), whether he is for afterwards shaping it more finely (Od.9.391; ASCIA). The following cut of Egyptian shipwrights is worthy of notice, since the form of the πέλεκυςthere depicted explains what is meant by shooting through the axe-heads,in Od.20.574. The difficulties which commentators have found under the idea that the arrow passed through the rings which fastened the axe to the handle, &c., all disappear, if we see that the πέλεκυςthe Odyssey had a ringshaped head. (See Dr. Warre's Raft of Ulysses,in Journ. of Hellen. Studies,1883.) A somewhat similar axe, but with two circular holes in the blade, was found in 1889 in the Peloponnesus (Ephem. Arch.1889). [For the Roman carpenter's axe, see ASCIA; DOLABRA.]
2. The use of the axe in war was especially an Asiatic practice. We find the Trojan Peisander (Il.13.612) armed with a double axe (ἀξίνη), and again in the fight at the ships the combatants fight with double and single battleaxes (πελέκεσσι καὶ ἀξινῃσι): it is possible that there also it is to be understood of the Trojans alone. In agreement with this we find the battle-axe regarded as the characteristic weapon of the Asiatic Amazons, who use both the single and the double (or Carian) axe, as in the scene of Penthesilea's death on the sarcophagus from Thessalonica; and so Horace speaks of the Amazonian battle-axe (Od.4.4, 20), and Virgil consistently represents the Italian shepherds and Camilla as fighting with this weapon (Aen.7.184; 11.696; 12.306), whether he is merely following Homer, with Trojans substituted for Greeks and Italians for Asiatics, or is hitting upon the truth that the primitive races both in Italy and in Northern Europe fought with the axe, which was in fact a weapon which they had ready to hand for other purposes. (See A. Müller in Baumeister, Denkm.p. 2043.) Horace notices it specially of the barbarous tribes in Rhaetia, as though it were a weapon not commaon in the Roman experiences of warfare with other Teutonic tribes; and it is remarkable that on the scabbard of the socalled sword of Tiberiusin the British Museum (figured in Vol. 1. p. 920 b), which was discovered at Mayence, we have a relief of an Amazon armed with a bipennis.It would, however, be pressing conjectures too far (as A. Müller points out) to say, with Orelli and others, that this figure necessarily symbolises the conquered Vindelicia, and was the sword of honour of Tiberius. We may be content to take it as an additional evidence of the Amazonianbattle-axe being used among German nations, and regarded as characteristic of them, whereas it had long before been disused in Italy.
3. The sacrificial axe (securis,πέλεκυς) was used by the attendant ministers (popae) for the slaughter of the larger victims. (The distinction, whether always preserved or not, was axe or hammer, malleus,for slaughtering cattle, a stone for swine, and a knife for sheep: see Marquardt, Staatsverw.3.181.) The sacrificial axe figured below is from the relief on the Arcus Argentariorum, and is combined with a vessel which is very likely the PRAEFERICULUM
4. For the axe of the lictors, see LICTORand FASCES
(πέλεκυς). An axe or hatchet used for a variety of purposes, as for a weapon ( Curt.iii. 4); for sacrificing victims ( Hor. Carm.iii. 23Hor. Carm., 12); or for felling trees (Ovid, Trist. iv. 2, 5). When it had a small second edge projecting at the back of the regular blade it was called securis dolabrata (see Dolabra), and securis simplex to distinguish it from the two-edged axe (bipennis; cf. Pallad. R. R. i. 43). The name is also given to the symbolical axe carried by the lictor in the fasces (see Fasces), and indicating the power of death which the State possessed. A pickaxe is also sometimes called securis ( Stat. Silv.ii. 2Stat. Silv., 87).